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It is estimated that Development Forced Displacement and Resettlement (DFDR) will affect 15 million people annually in this decade. While it is clear that infrastructure is required to facilitate economic growth, which is critical for developing countries, it is equally critical that this growth should be pro-poor and should not further impoverish the most vulnerable populations.
This study examined the case of two large development projects due to take place in Bagamoyo Tanzania, to assess risks and to identify which of two distinct approaches to DFDR leads to a better outcome for the populations affected. The first project is the development of what is set to be the largest port in East Africa around Mbegani. The second is an agro-industrial project planned to produce sugar, electricity and ethanol in a Government owned ranch in the North of the district.
A mixed methods approach was used to collect primary data between May and August 2014, including a household survey of 120 households and 40 semi- structured interviews with local Government officials, civil society leaders and key informants.
The main findings were that there is a significant risk of landlessness and therefore livelihood security to the majority of the population that are due to be physically displaced in the port project area. Due to protracted delays in both projects, there is already evidence of loss of livelihood and resulting hardship.
There are particular risks to women in terms of equity in decisions about how to spend compensation, in employment opportunities and also increased health risks due to a projected increase in HIV prevalence as a result of an influx of mainly male migrant workers.
These risks need to be mitigated by a comprehensive resettlement action plan for both projects that will analyse risks in detail and mitigate them through benefit sharing schemes such as giving preferential treatment to those displaced in the employment opportunities generated.

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Commercial sex work is a fact of life throughout the world. It is a high-risk activity in areas where HIV prevalence remains high and gender inequality is the norm. This research was carried out in Bagamoyo district in Tanzania with the aim of identifying the motivations that lead people into commercial sex work.

It explores the socio-economic factors pushing people into this working and the implications for education, income and other areas of their lives. Bar workers may often be forced into commercial sex work and this study also also assesses the impact of associations, set up with the support of APA/CVM on their situation and long term prospects.

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Domestic workers in many developing countries are modern day slaves. This ground breaking research carried out in Amhara region in Ethiopia identifies the daily reality of these girls lives.

It explores the socio-economic factors pushing young girls into working as Housemaids and the implications for education, income, HIV and other areas of their lives. It also assesses the impact of Housemaids associations, set up with the support of APA/CVM on their situation and long term prospects.

We gratefully acknowledge the support of Irish Aid in funding this research